The course is composed of lectures, demonstrations, literature discussions and a theoretical assignment. In a series of lectures the concepts of and the biochemical and molecular aspects of cell toxicity are illustrated using liver and kidney as a model target organs. Special emphasis is on the mechanisms of cell killing by necrosis and apoptosis, typical endpoints of tissue injury. Furthermore, signalling pathways that are central in the control of the cytotoxic outcome will be discussed. The use of state-of-the-art high-content live cell imaging technologies and RNAi-based approaches to understand mechanisms and to screen for adverse cellular responses will be demonstrated. At the end of the week participants will discuss hypothetical candidate in vitro models for different organs.